What are the typical features of karakoram glacier surges the karakoram is part of a complex of mountain ranges at the centre of asia, where the borders of five countries all converge (editors of encyclopædia britannica, 2016) glacial surges are glacial advances at velocities up to one hundred times faster than usual (sinha and ravindra, 2012, p 38.
Many karakoram glaciers periodically undergo surges during which large volumes of ice and debris are rapidly transported downglacier, usually at a rate of 1–2 orders of magnitude greater than during quiescence. 1 expanded and recently increased glacier surging in the karakoram 97 the greatest reported glacier surge in the karakoram was that of kutiàh glacier, which advanced 114 surge features on.
Surging is phenomenon where a glacier flows at a much higher pace, compared to normal and can persist for a few month or even several years glaciers exhibiting periodic surges are usually referred to as surge-type glaciers the karakoram mountain range spanning india, china and pakistan is home to the highest concentration of surge-type glaciers.
The karakoram anomaly glacier expansion and the ‘elevation effect,’ karakoram himalaya distinctive features include the regional climate, glacier nourishment, and extreme vertical gradients heavy exceptional numbers of glacier surges were reported, 6 of a possible 9 confirmed between 1986 and. Surging glaciers in the karakoram range (fig 1) and attempts to pin-point information which seems relevant to the interpretation of the phenomenon of surges an examination of the modern literature on the subject indicates that perhaps 90% of the known surging glaciers lie in the alaska-yukon and karakoram regions. During the peak of the north gasherbrum and kunyang surges, features were unrecognizable between pairs separated by more than sixteen days displacement data heterogeneity in karakoram glacier surges, journal of geophysical research: earth surface, 120, 7, (1288-1300), (2015) wiley online library. The karakoram anomaly glacier expansion and the ‘elevation effect,’ karakoram himalaya exceptional numbers of glacier surges were reported, 6 of a possible 9 confirmed between 1986 and biafo glaciers, comparing features and repeat photogra.
However, alaskan glacial surges have a much more abrupt termination phase than initiation phase, tending to last several days as opposed to months (quincey et al, 2015, p 1297) a final typical feature of karakoram glacier surges is that they do not seem to be seasonally controlled. On one hand, karakoram glacier surges have been suggested to be thermally rather than hydrologically controlled, coinciding with high-altitude warming from long-term precipitation and accumulation patterns [quincey et al, 2011 quincey and luckman, 2014.
All known surging glaciers in the karakoram are largely or wholly avalanche nourished leading to extensive debris mantles on the lower tongues multivariate analysis indicates that surge-type glaciers are characteristically long, wide and debris-covered [barrand and murray, 2006.